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    新視野大學英語第三版第三冊復習資料

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    新視野大學英語第三版第三冊復習資料

    一、讀寫教程

    Unit 1 The way to success

    (一)Text A:Never, ever give up! 永不言棄!

    As a young boy, Britain's great Prime Minister, Sir Winston Churchill, attended a public school called Harrow. He was not a good student, and had he not been from a famous family, he probably would have been removed from the school for deviating from the rules. Thankfully, he did finish at Harrow and his errors there did not preclude him from going on to the university. He eventually had a premier army career whereby he was later elected prime minister. He achieved fame for his wit, wisdom, civic duty, and abundant courage in his refusal to surrender during the miserable dark days of World War II. His amazing determination helped motivate his entire nation and was an inspiration worldwide. 英國的偉大首相溫斯頓·丘吉爾爵士,小時候在哈羅公學上學。 當時他可不是個好學生,要不是出身名門,他可能早就因為違反紀律被開除了。 謝天謝地,他總算從哈羅畢業了,在那里犯下的錯誤并沒影響到他上大學。 后來,他憑著軍旅生涯中的杰出表現當選為英國首相。 他的才思、智慧、公民責任感以及在二戰痛苦而黑暗的時期拒絕投降的無畏勇氣,為他贏得了美名。 他非凡的決心,不僅激勵了整個民族,還鼓舞了全世界。

     

    Toward the end of his period as prime minister, he was invited to address the patriotic young boys at his old school, Harrow. The headmaster said, gentlemen, the greatest speaker of our time, will be here in a few days to address you, and you should

    obey whatever sound advice he may give you.%up, all five feet, five inches and 107 kilos of him, and gave this short, clear-cut speech: 在他首相任期即將結束時,他應邀前往母校哈羅公學,為滿懷報國之志的同學們作演講。 校長說:“年輕的先生們,當代最偉大的演說家過幾天就會來為你們演講,他提出的任何中肯的建議,你們都要聽從。” 那個激動人心的日子終于到了。 溫斯頓爵士站了起來——他只有5英尺5英寸高,體重卻有107公斤。他作了言簡意賅的講話:“年輕人,要永不放棄。永不放棄!永不放棄!永不,永不,永不,永不!”

     

    Personal history, educational opportunity, individual dilemmas — none of these can inhibit a strong spirit committed to success. No task is too hard. No amount of preparation is too long or too difficult. Take the example of two of the most scholarly scientists of our age, Albert Einstein and Thomas Edison. Both faced immense obstacles and extreme

    criticism. Both were called o learnnd written off as idiots by their teachers.

    Thomas Edison ran away from school because his teacher whipped him repeatedly for asking too many questions. Einstein didn't speak fluently until he was almost nine years old and was such a poor student that some thought he was unable to learn. Yet both boys' parents believed in them. They worked intensely each day with their sons, and the boys learned to never bypass the long hours of hard work that they needed to succeed. In the end, both Einstein and Edison overcame their childhood persecution and went on to achieve magnificent discoveries that benefit the entire world today.

    個人經歷、教育機會、個人困境,這些都不能阻擋一個全力以赴追求成功的、有著堅強意志

    的人。 任務再苦,準備再長,難度再大,都不能讓他放棄自己的追求。 就以本時代最有學問的兩位科學家——阿爾伯特·愛因斯坦和托馬斯·愛迪生為例,他們都曾面臨巨大的障礙和極端的批評,都曾被說成“不開竅”,被老師當成笨蛋而放棄。 托馬斯·愛迪生還曾逃學,因為老師嫌他問的問題太多而經常鞭打他。 愛因斯坦一直到將近9歲才能流利地說話,學習成績太差,有些人認為他都已經學不好了。 然而,這兩個男孩的父母都相信他們。 他們堅持不懈地每天和兒子一起努力,孩子們也了解到,要想成功,就絕不要怕付出長期而艱辛的努力。 最終,愛因斯坦和愛迪生都擺脫了童年的困擾,進而作出了造福當今全世界的偉大發現。

     

    Consider also the heroic example of Abraham Lincoln, who faced substantial hardships, failures and repeated misfortunes in his lifetime. His background was certainly not glamorous. He was raised in a very poor family with only one year of formal education. He failed in business twice, suffered a nervous breakdown when his first love died suddenly and lost eight political elections. Later in life, he suffered profound grief over the tragic death of three of his four children. Yet his strong will was the spur that pushed him forward, strengthening his optimism, dedication and determination. It intensified and focused his efforts and enabled him to triumph over the overwhelming failures and profound difficulties in his life. A hundred years later, people from around the world commend Abraham Lincoln as the greatest American president of all time.

    再如亞伯拉罕·林肯這個英雄的典范,他一生面臨了無數艱辛、失敗和接二連三的不幸。 他的出身和經歷真是一點也算不上光鮮。 他在一個非常貧困的家庭長大,只受過一年正規教育。 經商兩度失敗,初戀愛人的突然離世也使他精神崩潰,還在八次政治選舉中落馬。 此

    后,他的四個孩子有三個不幸去世,令他悲痛欲絕。 然而,堅強的意志鞭策著他,推動他前進,使他更加樂觀、投入、堅毅。 這讓他得以全力以赴,一次次戰勝生命中的巨大困難和挫折。 一百年之后,世界各地的人們都贊頌亞伯拉罕·林肯,認為他是有史以來最偉大的美國總統。

     

    Just like Churchill and Lincoln, only those who who uphold a committed and focused will and spirit, will find their endeavors successful. Many artists, statesmen, writers and inventors have had the same experience. They achieved prosperity because they possessed a fierce will to keep preparing and working and a passion to succeed. They attained success, not because it was easy, but because they had the will to overcome profound obstacles and to work diligently in the pursuit of their goals. 與丘吉爾和林肯一樣,只有那些“執著地追求成功”的人,那些保持始終如一的精神意志的人,才會通過自身的努力,獲得成功。 許多藝術家、政治家、作家和發明家都有同樣的經歷。 他們之所以能取得這樣的成就,是因為他們擁有強烈的意愿,不懈地準備、奮斗,并保持對成功的激情。 他們取得了成功,并不是因為成功很容易,而是因為他們擁有克服重重障礙的意志,為了追求目標而勤奮努力。

     

    After growing up on a cattle ranch without running water or electricity, Sandra Day O'Connor fought to achieve the best education possible. Consistently graduating at the top of her class, she worked her way into Stanford Law School, where she graduated with honors. But despite all of her hard work, Sandra Day O'Connor was still a woman in the

    1950s. Even with the prestige of her degree from Stanford, she was rejected from the entire law circuit as firms preferred to hire less qualified men rather than risk hiring a female lawyer, which was unprecedented. Yet Sandra Day O'Connor refused to give up on her dreams. Through sheer persistence she was eventually nominated and then appointed the first woman Supreme Court Justice of the United States of America. There, she acted as a crucial vote on issues like abortion and women's rights.

    桑德拉·戴·奧康納成長于既沒自來水也沒電的養牛場,她努力學習以使自己接受到最好的教育。 她的學習成績在班上始終名列前茅,一路奮斗終于進入了斯坦福大學法學院,并以優異的成績從法學院畢業。 盡管奧康納勤奮刻苦,但在20世紀50年代,她仍然受到女人身份的制約。 即使斯坦福大學的學位有良好的聲譽,她仍被整個法律界拒之門外,因為事務所寧愿聘請才干稍遜的男性,也不愿冒險破例雇傭一位女律師。 然而,桑德拉·戴·奧康納并未放棄夢想。 她執著地堅持下去,終于得到提名并被任命為美國第一位女性最高法院大法官。 她任職期間,對很多問題,例如墮胎和婦女權利,都起到了極為關鍵的作用。

     

    Many people simply say that they want something, but they do not expend the substantial effort required to achieve it. Many people let the threat of failure stop them from trying with all of their heart. The secret of success is based upon a burning inward desire — a robust, fierce will and focus — that fuels the determination to act, to keep preparing, to keep going even when we are tired and fail. As a wise saying goes: how many times you fall down that matters. It's how many times you get back up that makes success!

    很多人只是嘴上說他們想要什么東西,但并不真正地付出大量努力去實現。 很多人因為害

     

    怕失敗而不敢全心嘗試。 而成功的秘訣在于內心燃燒的欲望——一種堅定不移的意志和專注力——從而激發行動的決心,即使疲憊,即使失敗,也會繼續準備,繼續前進。 正如一句箴言所說:“你摔倒了多少次并不要緊;你能多少次重新站起來對成功才至關重要!”

     

    Focus on becoming more knowledgeable. Focus on gradual, consistent progress. Maintain the strong will to keep going — even when you are tired and want to slack or the odds seem too large. With hard work, determination, dedication and preparation, you can transcend any handicap, accomplish any feat, and achieve success!

    專注于汲取更多的知識,爭取持之以恒地漸進,保持永不言退的堅強意志——即使在你疲憊想要松懈的時候,或者困難重重之時。 “執著地追求成功!” “有志者,事竟成!” 只要刻苦努力,意志堅決,專心投入,準備充分,你就能跨越一切障礙,完成所有壯舉,取得成功!

     

    (二)Word Bank

    Where there is a will, there is a way. This proverb means that if you are really determined to do something, however difficult it might be, you will 1) eventually find a way to do it well. The 2) premier point is that you must have the will to achieve success.

    Ninety percent of the failures that occur are due to the fact that there is no strong will involved. Many people simply say that they want something, but they do not make any 3) endeavor to achieve it. So, instead of getting it, they use the poorest excuse to explain the situation away.

    On many occasions, people tend to 4) bypass every minute obstacle, making the

    objective impossible to attain. In reality, if they have the will to succeed, they can get rid of the 5) handicaps and achieve their goals.

    Only those with a(n) 6) committed and focused will and spirit can fight their way to final victory. Many a famous man has the same experience. They have 7) attained their prestige because they have had the will to 8) transcend apparently insuperable (無法克服的) obstacles. Many artists, statesmen, writers and inventors have manged to succeed because they possess a fierce will, which has helped them to accomplish major 9) feats.

    Therefore, we can see that the main thing which one needs is a strong will. Weak-willed people never climb to the top. They collapse at the 10) slightest use of force against them. Strong-willed people, on the other hand will stand up against all odds and will make it a point to succeed.

     

    (三)Translation

    如今,很多年輕人不再選擇穩定的工作,他們更愿意自主創業,依靠自己的智慧和奮斗去實現自我價值。青年創業(young entrepreneurship)是未來國家經濟活力的來源,創業者的成功不但會創造財富、增加就業機會、改善大家的生活,從長遠來看,對于國家更是一件好事,創業者正是讓中國經濟升級換代的力量。尤其是在當前,國家鼓勵大眾創業、萬眾創新,在政策上給予中小企業支持,這更加激發了年輕人的創業熱情。

    Nowadays, many young people no longer choose “stable” jobs. Instead, they prefer to start their own businesses and realize their self-value through their own wisdom and efforts. Young entrepreneurship is the source of national economic vitality in the future. The success of entrepreneurs not only creates fortune, increases job opportunities,

    improves people’s life, but it is also good for the country in the long term. Entrepreneurs are a driving force in upgrading China’s economy. Especially for the time being, our country is encouraging people to start their own businesses and make innovations and giving policy support for medium and small businesses. This further arouses young people's enthusiasm to start their own businesses.

    Unit 2 Beat your fear

    (一)Text A:Swimming through fear游越恐懼

    I was on a tour of France with my friends when our car pulled to a stop at the beach and we saw the Mediterranean Sea. Massive waves surged against large rocks that formed a waterproof jetty. People said this beach was known for its notorious rip currents. I shivered with fear. Nothing scared me as much as water.

    當時我和朋友正在法國旅行,我們把汽車停在海灘,眼前就是地中海。 巨浪翻滾擊打著構筑起防波堤的偌大巖石。 人們說這里的海灘以其可怕的裂流而著稱。 恐懼讓我不寒而栗。 沒有什么比水讓我更害怕了。

     

    Just the sight of the sea made me sick to my stomach. 只是看到了海就已經讓我覺得反胃。

     

    I'd always loved water and been a good swimmer until last summer, when I'd decided to climb up to the highest diving board at the pool. I'd hopped from that height and hit the water with an incredible impact. The air was ousted from my lungs and I blacked out. The next thing I knew, my brother was pulling my feeble body out of the pool. From then on,

    my fear wouldn't recede; I was absolutely terrified of water.

    我曾經一直都是喜歡水的,并且直到去年夏天我都還是一名游泳好手。那時,我決定爬上游泳池邊上最高的跳板來跳水。 我從那么高的地方跳下,重重地撞擊到水面上。 我肺里的空氣一下子全被擠出去了,馬上不省人事。 醒來時發現哥哥正把我虛弱的身體從游泳池里拖出來。 從那時起,我對水的恐懼就沒有消退過,我怕極了水。

     

    “賈森,你要過來嗎?”我的朋友馬特朝我喊道。

     

    might deem my fear pathetic if they knew.

    我說:“好,就是欣賞一下景色”,又在心里默默加了一句——在岸上欣賞。擔心如果他們知道我害怕水而可憐我。

     

    Suddenly I heard shouting in French. A mob of people were running into the sea, fully clothed. That's odd, I thought.

    突然,我聽到有人用法語喊叫。 接著看見一群人沒脫衣服,就沖到海里。 我心想,這真是太奇怪了。

     

    I glimpsed something moving up and down amid the waves, past the end of the jetty. I gasped, realizing the catastrophe with horror. That's a little boy out there! The would-be rescuers fought against the tide, but the situation was bleak. With the water's tow, they'd

    never get to him in time.

    我瞥見防波堤盡頭的海浪中有個東西在上下浮動。 我驚恐地意識到大事不妙,倒吸了一口涼氣,那居然是個小男孩! 前去救落水男童的人們搏擊著海浪,但情況卻不樂觀。 由于水的拉拽,他們根本不可能及時游到小男孩身邊。

     

    I looked back at the boy. His head popped up, then a wave crashed over him and he disappeared for a moment; I had to intervene.

    我扭頭看看那小男孩。 他的頭剛露出水面,然后一個浪頭打過來,好一陣不見蹤影——我不得不做點什么了。

     

    I appraised the situation and realized — the jetty! The boy was close to it; maybe I could help from there. I raced down the beach, out onto the jetty, and it hit me: Water! My palms got sweaty and my stomach felt sick, symptoms of my fear. I stopped short. 我估計了當下的情形后注意到了——對,那防波堤! 小男孩靠近那個地方,也許我可以從那兒幫忙。 我沖下海灘,跑上防波堤,但突然我想起了什么——水! 頓時有了恐懼的癥狀:我手心冒汗,胃里感覺不適。 我一下子停下來。

     

    The people in the water had underestimated the waves and weren't making any progress. I was the only one who saw that going out on the jetty was the fastest way to reach the drowning boy. Yet in the midst of this tragedy, I was extremely terrified. I tried to remember the lifeguard training I'd had as a teenager.

    水里的那些人低估了海浪的威力,救援工作沒有任何進展。 只有我注意到了跑到防波堤上

     

    是到達溺水男童的最快的路徑。 然而在此性命攸關之際,我極度恐慌。 我努力去回想十幾歲時所接受的救生員訓練。

     

    I was paralyzed with fear, but I forced myself to move forward with this impromptu rescue. I don't want this. Surely someone else can save him before I have to.

    我因恐懼而全身癱軟,但我強迫自己向前移動,展開這場突發的救援行動。 我不想做這些,在我施救之前肯定會有別人救他吧。

     

    At the ridge of the jetty, I whirled around, convinced I'd see an athletic swimmer plowing through the rough water toward the boy. To my dismay, no one was there. I turned back out to the sea to see the boy battered by vicious waves about 25 yards away from me. Sucking in a deep breath, I threw myself into the water. As soon as I jumped in, I felt like I was back in that pool, breathless, struggling, terrified. Salt stung my eyes. Focus, I shouted in my head. Where is he?

    我在防波堤的邊上迅速轉過身來,深信會看見某個游泳健將正向著小男孩劈波斬浪。 但是讓我沮喪的是,一個人也沒有。 我回身面向大海,看見25碼開外惡浪擊打著小男孩。 我深吸一口氣,縱身躍入水中。 一跳進水里,我感覺仿佛又回到了當年的那個游泳池,我喘不過氣,拼命掙扎,驚恐萬分。 咸水刺痛了我的雙眼。 “集中注意力,”我在心里喊道。 “他在哪里?”

     

    Then, with clarity, I saw a thin arm waving weakly a few yards away. I swam with all my strength, reaching the boy just as he sank below the surface. I grabbed his arm and

    pulled. He popped back up, eyes wide with terror, pawing and twisting against me. escue attempt, and we'd both perish. he listened, and was still.

    然后我清楚地看到一只細小的手臂在離我幾碼處微弱地揮動著。 我拼盡全力游過去,在他剛要沒水之時趕到了。 我抓住他的手臂拉他。 他冒出水面,眼睛因恐懼瞪得很大,胡亂抓扯著我。 我用法語命令他:“別慌!” 他這樣掙扎會阻礙救援,那我們倆就都死定了。 我再次命令他:“別慌!” 謝天謝地,這次他聽話了,不動了。

     

    When I turned back toward shore a wave pounded over us. The jetty was further away! The rip current! It was forcibly dragging us out to the sea. I fought to get us back to land, but made little progress. I knew I'd never be able to escort him back like this. 當我轉身朝岸邊游去的時候,一個浪劈頭蓋臉打來。 我們離防波堤更遠了! 是裂流! 它強行把我們拽往大海深處。 我掙扎著想帶他游回岸上,但進展甚微。 我知道這種游法根本沒法護著他返回岸邊。

     

    Desperate to survive, I remembered what I'd learned in my life saving class: Never, ever swim against the rip current! Swim sideways to the pull of the current and slowly make your way back toward shore. It was an odd-looking but practicable solution. Swim sideways and float to rest. Swim sideways and float to rest. We did that over and over. We slowly made our way to safety. jetty. I hadn't even noticed how close we were, only about seven feet left to go.

    強烈求生欲望之下,我想起了在救生課上所學到的知識:永遠不要與裂流相對而游!要順其方向朝側邊游,慢慢地靠向岸邊。 這個辦法盡管看上去很荒謬,但卻管用。 朝側邊游,浮起休息。 朝側邊游,浮起休息。 我們重復著這個方法,慢慢地游到了安全區。 “賈森,你能行的!”我聽到站在防波堤上的馬特對我說。 我甚至沒有注意到我們離防波堤這么的近,只剩下大約7英尺的距離了。

     

    And, as we made our way to safety I realized something incredible: I was no longer afraid. That absence of fear was a moment of triumph!

    后來我們到達安全水域時,我覺得有些不可思議:我不再怕水了。 恐懼沒了,這一刻我勝利了!

     

    Matt jumped into the water. I tossed the boy to him. Just as I let go, a big wave picked him up and carried him all the way to Matt.

    馬特跳進水里。 我把男孩拋給他。 我剛一松手,一個大浪托起他直接把他送到了馬特身邊。

     

    On the brink of collapse, I stopped fighting, just letting myself go. My hand hit the jetty. It was like an electric shock that brought me back to my senses. Someone grabbed for me.

    我全身都快虛脫了,我不再劃水,就這樣放松自己順水而漂。 我的手碰上了防波堤,仿佛觸電一般,我重新恢復了神志。 有人抓住了我。

     

    I felt strong arms lift me. I ascended not only from the sea onto the secure rocks of

    the jetty — but also to my salvation, leaving behind the terrible fear that had gripped me for so long. I turned my head and saw the boy was hugged tightly by his mother. I looked out to the sea. Weary as I was, the water had never looked so beautiful.

    我感覺到強壯有力的手臂將我托起。 我不僅從海里爬上防波堤的磐石,而且完成了自我拯救,擺脫了困擾已久的恐懼。 我扭過頭看見小男孩被母親緊緊擁入懷中。 雖已疲憊不堪,但放眼大海,我感覺海水比任何時候看起來都更美。

    (二)Word Bank

    Social anxiety symptoms often begin during adolescence. It's a developmental process that is 1) characterized by profound psychological changes, especially in terms of how we relate to others. One of the most frustrating 2) aspects of the adolescent years is the tendency for self-focus and a decrease in the 3) amount of focus we have for the feelings and needs of others.

    While these changes are fairly universal, those of us who were born with a shy temperament (性格) can carry the adolescent fears, which may never 4) recede , into adulthood. An anxious temperament causes our brains to react forcibly when 5) exposed to the stress of sudden awareness of our peers and gradually we become more and more vulnerable. Our brains label the fear of exposure or embarrassment as highly dangerous. This may result in a(n) 6) vicious circle for many years: excessive self-consciousness and inhibition when you feel you are being observed.

    To cope with the problem, I would like to 7) challenge you to strive for increased focus on other people, in place of your 8) excessive focus on yourself. Yes, I know, this is easier said than done. The fear may cause you to feel that you will lose control or make a fool of yourself when you are in the spotlight (聚光燈). But if you begin to build a new response, in 9) reaction to your fears, you will gradually build up a stronger and more positive response. Remember, don't let self-consciousness 10) paralyze you! Be courageous!

    (三)Translation

    實現中華民族偉大復興(rejuvenation)是近代以來中國人民最偉大的夢想,我們稱之為“中國夢”,其基本內涵是實現國家富強、民族振興、人民幸福。中國夢,是讓每一個積極進取的中國人形成世世代代的信念:只要經過不懈的奮斗便能獲得更好的生活。人們必須通過自己的勤奮、勇氣、創意和決心邁向繁榮,而不是依賴于社會和他人的援助。每個中國人都是中國夢的參與者和創造者。中國夢是民族的夢,也是每個中國人的夢。

    Realizing the great national rejuvenation, which we define as the Chinese Dream, has been the greatest Chinese expectation since modern times. It basically means achieving prosperity for the country, renewal of the nation and happiness for the people, thus ensuring that every enterprising Chinese carries, generation after generation, the firm conviction that a better life is accomplished through persistent effort. People should achieve their prosperity through diligence, courage, creativity and determination instead of aid from society or other people. Each individual is a participant and a designer in the cause of realizing the Chinese Dream, for it is a dream not only for the entire nation but also for every Chinese.

    Unit 4 Let’s go

     

    (一)Text A:The surprising purpose of travel 令人驚奇的旅行目的

    It's 4:15 in the morning, and my alarm clock has just stolen away a lovely dream. I almost return back to sleep before my eye catches my packed suitcase and I groan, remembering that I'm going to the airport. The taxi is late and then lost, and I'm getting increasingly nervous that I'll miss my flight. I run in when we arrive, stagger through security and finally get to my gate. After all the trouble of this morning, my flight is canceled and I'm stuck in this terminal for the next 218 minutes, and my only consolation is a cup of complimentary airport coffee. This is traveling, a burdensome series of running and waiting, and after countless hours, finally getting there.

    早晨四點一刻,鬧鐘把我從美夢中驚醒,要不是突然看見早已收拾好的行李箱,我幾乎又要睡著。想起來還要去機場,我嘆了口氣。 出租車來晚了,并且在途中迷了路,我越來越擔心會趕不上飛機。 出租車一到機場我就沖進去,跌跌撞撞通過安檢處,終于,我來到了登機口。 經歷這一早所有的麻煩事,我乘坐的航班卻被取消了。在接下來的218分鐘里,我被困在了機場,唯一覺得安慰的是機場提供的一杯免費咖啡。 這就是旅行,讓人心煩的跑跑停停。最終,在不知經過多少小時之后,終于到達要去的地方。

    Why do we travel? I don't mind the actual flying, the wonder of being airborne in a dense metal bird. The rest of the journey, however, can feel like a tedious lesson in the ills of modernity, from the predawn x-ray screening to the sad airport malls selling clusters of keepsakes. It's the result of a globalized world, and it sucks.

    我們為什么要旅行? 其實,我并不介意飛行本身,在這樣一個密實的金屬大鳥中飛行,讓我感到很奇妙。 然而,旅程其余的部分,從一大早X光檢查到出售大堆紀念品的糟糕的機

    場商場,感覺就像是關于現代社會弊病的乏味課程。 這是全球化的結果,它糟糕透了。

     

    Sometimes, of course, we travel because we need to. Because in this digital age, there is still something important about the handshake at a business luncheon. Or eating mom's special food on Thanksgiving. Or seeing your girlfriend on your 2-year anniversary. 當然,有時候我們旅行是因為我們需要去旅行。 因為即使在這個數字化時代,我們仍然有一些很重要的事情要去做,比如在商務午餐中與生意伙伴握手,或是在感恩節這天吃上媽媽特別準備的食物,或是在你和你女朋友的兩周年紀念日這天去看她。

     

    But most travel is decidedly optional. Only corporate travel, about 30% of trips over 50 miles, is truly compulsory. Instead, we travel because we want to, because the annoyances of the airport are offset by the thrill of being someplace new. Because work is stressful and our blood pressure is too high and we need a vacation somewhere tropical. Because home is boring. Because the flights are on sale. Because Paris is Paris. 但是大多數旅行是可去可不去的,在超過50英里的旅行中,只有30%屬于真正必需的商務旅行。 我們旅行是因為我們想要去旅行,因為到一個新地方的興奮和激動可以抵消在機場的各種煩心事;因為工作壓力太大,我們的血壓太高,我們要去熱帶地區度假;因為在家實在太無聊;因為航班都在打折;因為巴黎畢竟是巴黎。

    Thanks to modern aviation, we can now move through space at an inhuman speed. For the first time in human history, we can outrun the sun and move from one hemisphere to another in a single day. Of course, it's not enough to simply get on a plane. If we want to realize the creative benefits of travel, then we have to re-think its overall purpose. Most

    people, after all, escape to Paris so they don't have to think about those troubles they left behind. But here's the irony: Our mind is most likely to solve our most stubborn problems while we are sitting in luxury in a Left Bank café. So, instead of contemplating that buttery dessert, we should be conscious of those domestic issues we just can't solve.

    多虧了現代航空技術,我們現在可以以非凡的速度在空中穿梭。 在人類歷史中,這是我們第一次超過太陽——在短短一天中從一個半球到達另一個半球。 當然,僅僅往飛機上一坐是不夠的。 我們要想認識到旅行在提高創新力方面的價值,還得再全面考慮其目的。 畢竟,大多數人逃到巴黎,是因為這樣他們就可以不必考慮家里的那些煩心事。 但是,具有諷刺意味的是,當我們坐在豪華的左岸咖啡館時,我們的腦子極有可能能解決那些最棘手的問題。 因此,我們應該考慮那些在家里解決不了的問題,而不是琢磨那些奶油甜點。

     

    The larger lesson, though, is that our thoughts are saturated with the familiar. The brain is a space of near infinite possibility, which means that it spends a lot of time and energy choosing what not to notice. As a result, creativity is traded away for efficiency; we think in finite, literal prose, not symbolic verse. A bit of distance, however, helps loosen the cognitive chains that imprison us, making it easier to mingle the new with the old; the mundane is grasped from a slightly more abstract perspective. According to research, the experience of an exotic culture endows us with a valuable open-mindedness, making it easier to realize that even a trivial thing can have multiple meanings. Consider the act of leaving food on the plate: In China, this is often seen as a compliment, a signal that the host has provided enough to eat. But in America the same act is a subtle insult, an indication that the food wasn't good enough to finish.

    但更應該知道的是我們的思想被熟悉的東西所充滿。 大腦是一個幾乎具有無限可能性的空間,這就意味著它花了大量的時間和精力選擇不去注意什么。 因此,我們犧牲創造力來換取效率。我們以字義明確的散文方式思考,而非以具有象征意義的詩歌方式思考。 然而,一點的距離就可以幫助我們放松禁錮我們認知的鏈條,使新舊思想的結合更容易,對平淡無奇的事情可從更抽象的角度加以認知。 有研究指出,體驗異國文化可以賦予我們寶貴的開放性思維,使我們更容易明白即使是微不足道的事物也可以有多種意義。 想一想把食物剩在盤子里這個行為: 在中國,這通常被看成是一種贊美,說明主人提供了足夠的食物。 但是在美國,同樣的行為卻暗含侮辱,表明食物不夠好,人們不愿意吃完。

     

    Such multicultural contrasts mean that seasoned travelers are open to ambiguity, willing to realize that there are decidedly different (and equally valid) ways of interpreting the world. This, in turn, allows them to expand the circumference of their s they refuse to settle for their first answers and initial guesses.

    這種多元文化對比說明,經驗豐富的旅行者會接受對事物的多樣性解讀,他們欣然認識到對這個世界可以有截然不同(但卻同樣有效)的方式進行解釋。 這也從而讓他們擴大了“認知輸入”的范圍,因為他們拒絕僅僅滿足于他們的最初答案和先前的猜測。

     

    Of course, this mental flexibility doesn't come from mere distance, a simple change in latitude and longitude. Instead, this renaissance of creativity appears to be a side effect of difference: We need to change cultures, to experience the disorienting diversity of human traditions. The same facets of foreign travel that are so confusing (Do I tip the waiter? Where is this train taking me?) turn out to have a lasting impact, making us more creative

    because we're less insular. We're reminded of all that we don't know, which is nearly everything; we're surprised by the constant stream of surprises. Even in this globalized age, we can still be amazed at all the earthly things that weren't included in the Let's Go guidebook and that certainly don't exist back home.

    當然,這種思維的靈活性不僅僅來自純粹的距離變化,即簡單的經緯度的變化。 相反,這種創造力的復興似乎是差異所帶來的副產品: 我們需要處于不同的文化中,體驗人類傳統中紛繁復雜的多樣性。 在國外旅行中讓人迷惑的同一個方面的問題(如我該給服務生小費嗎?火車要把我帶到哪里?),產生了一種持久的影響, 使我們更加具有創造性, 因為我們不再那么視野狹隘了。 我們了解了我們不知道的東西,而這些東西幾乎涵蓋了一切;我們對接連不斷的驚喜感到驚奇。 即使在這個全球化的時代,我們仍然會對所有未包括在《旅行指南》中的、平常的東西感到驚奇,而這些東西在自己家中也不存在。

     

    So, let's not pretend that travel doesn't have its drawbacks, or that we endure jet lag for pleasure. We don't spend 10 hours lost in the Louvre because we like it, and the view from the top of Machu Picchu probably doesn't make up for the trouble of lost luggage. (More often than not, I need a vacation after my vacation.) We travel because we need to, because distance and difference are the secret cornerstones of creativity. When we get home, home is still the same. But something in our mind has been changed, and that changes everything.

    當然,我們也并不是假裝旅行沒有缺點,或是說我們忍受飛行時差綜合反應只是為了消遣。 在盧浮宮我們迷路十個小時,那不是因為我們喜歡迷路。我們站在馬丘比丘古城遺址頂端俯瞰的風景可能也并不能彌補我們丟失行李的麻煩。 (通常,我在假期結束后還需要一個休

     

     

    At 2 a.m. on April 27, about seven miles north of Memphis, at least one boiler 6) gave way, causing a huge explosion that destroyed the center portion of the boat, throwing sleeping men high into the air before landing in the river. Confusion and chaos 7) ensued as men tried to save themselves and others. Many drowned while others burned to death.

    The direct cause of the explosion was later determined to be the leaky and poorly repaired steam boiler. Passengers who 8) survived the initial explosion had to risk their lives in the icy water of the Mississippi or burn with the ship. Many died of drowning or coldness. Bodies of 9) victims continued to be found downriver for months. Many were never recovered. Some of the Sultana's crew, including the captain, were among those who 10) perished.

     

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